Advertisement

Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008

      Summary

      Effects of weak electrical currents on brain and neuronal function were first described decades ago. Recently, DC polarization of the brain was reintroduced as a noninvasive technique to alter cortical activity in humans. Beyond this, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of different cortical areas has been shown, in various studies, to result in modifications of perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral functions. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that it can induce beneficial effects in brain disorders. Brain stimulation with weak direct currents is a promising tool in human neuroscience and neurobehavioral research. To facilitate and standardize future tDCS studies, we offer this overview of the state of the art for tDCS.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      References

        • Priori A.
        Brain polarization in humans: a reappraisal of an old tool for prolonged non-invasive modulation of brain excitability.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 114: 589-595
        • Zago S.
        • Ferrucci R.
        • Fregni F.
        • Priori A.
        Bartholow, Sciamanna, Alberti: pioneers in the electrical stimulation of the exposed human cerebral cortex.
        Neuroscientist. 2008 Jan 24; (epub ahead of print)
        • Bindman L.J.
        • Lippold O.C.J.
        • Redfearn J.W.T.
        The action of brief polarizing currents on the cerebral cortex of the rat (1) during current flow and (2) in the production of long-lasting after-effects.
        J Physiol. 1964; 172: 369-382
        • Gartside I.B.
        Mechanisms of sustained increases of firing rate of neurones in the rat cerebral cortex after polarization.
        role of protein synthesis Nature. 1968; 220: 383-384
        • Islam N.
        • Aftabuddin M.
        • Moriwaki A.
        • Hattori Y.
        • Hori Y.
        Increase in the calcium level following anodal polarization in the rat brain.
        Brain Res. 1995; 684: 206-208
        • Hattori Y.
        • Moriwaki A.
        • Hori Y.
        Biphasic effects of polarizing current on adenosine-sensitive generation of cyclic AMP in rat cerebral cortex.
        Neurosci Lett. 1990; 116: 320-324
        • Rush S.
        • Driscoll D.A.
        Current distribution in the brain from surface electrodes.
        Anaest Analg Curr Res. 1968; 47: 717-723
        • Dymond A.M.
        • Coger R.W.
        • Serafetinides E.A.
        Intracerebral current levels in man during electrosleep therapy.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1975; 10: 101-104
        • Costain R.
        • Redfearn J.W.
        • Lippold O.C.
        A controlled trial of the therapeutic effect of polarizazion of the brain in depressive illness.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1964; 110: 786-799
        • Carney M.W.
        Negative polarisation of the brain in the treatment of manic states.
        Ir J Med Sci. 1969; 8: 133-135
        • Lolas F.
        Brain polarization: behavioral and therapeutic effects.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1977; 12: 37-47
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Liebetanz D.
        • Antal A.
        • et al.
        Modulation of cortical excitability by weak direct current stimulation—technical, safety and functional aspects.
        Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 56: 255-276
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation.
        J Physiol. 2000; 527: 633-639
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans.
        Neurology. 2001; 57: 1899-1901
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Nitsche M.S.
        • Klein C.C.
        • et al.
        Level of action of cathodal DC polarisation induced inhibition of the human motor cortex.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 114: 600-604
        • Priori A.
        • Berardelli A.
        • Rona S.
        • Accornero N.
        • Manfredi M.
        Polarization of the human motor cortex through the scalp.
        Neuroreport. 1998; 9: 2257-2260
        • Creutzfeldt O.D.
        • Fromm G.H.
        • Kapp H.
        Influence of transcortical D-C currents on cortical neuronal activity.
        Exp Neurol. 1962; 5: 436-452
        • Purpura D.P.
        • McMurtry J.G.
        Intracellular activities and evoked potential changes during polarization of motor cortex.
        J Neurophysiol. 1965; 28: 166-185
        • Iyer M.B.
        • Mattu U.
        • Grafman J.
        • et al.
        Safety and cognitive effect of frontal DC brain polarization in healthy individuals.
        Neurology. 2005; 64: 872-875
        • Accornero N.
        • Li Voti P.
        • La Riccia M.
        • Gregori B.
        Visual evoked potentials modulation during direct current cortical polarization.
        Exp Brain Res. 2007; 178: 261-266
        • Antal A.
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Bartfai O.
        • Paulus W.
        Excitability changes induced in the human primary visual cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation: direct electrophysiological evidence.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004; 45: 702-707
        • Miranda P.C.
        • Lomarev M.
        • Hallett M.
        Modeling the current distribution during transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2006; 117: 1623-1629
        • Wagner T.
        • Fregni F.
        • Fecteau S.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation: a computer-based human model study.
        Neuroimage. 2007; 35: 1113-1124
        • Hummel F.
        • Celnik P.
        • Giraux P.
        • et al.
        Effects of non-invasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke.
        Brain. 2005; 128: 490-499
        • Dundas J.E.
        • Thickbroom G.W.
        • Mastaglia F.L.
        Perception of comfort during transcranial DC stimulation: effect of NaCl solution concentration applied to sponge electrodes.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2007; 118: 1166-1170
        • Gandiga P.C.
        • Hummel F.C.
        • Cohen L.G.
        Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double-blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2006; 117: 845-850
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Doemkes S.
        • Karaköse T.
        • et al.
        Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.
        J Neurophysiol. 2007; 97: 3109-3117
        • Roth B.J.
        Mechanisms for electrical stimulation of excitable tissue.
        Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 1994; 22: 253-305
        • Boros K.
        • Poreisz C.
        • Münchau A.
        • Paulus W.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        Premotor transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects primary motor excitability in humans.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2008; 27: 1292-1300
        • Fregni F.
        • Liguori P.
        • Fecteau S.
        • et al.
        Cortical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex with transcranial direct current stimulation reduces cue-provoked smoking craving: a randomized, sham-controlled study.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69: 32-40
        • Knoch D.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Fischbacher U.
        • et al.
        Studying the neurobiology of social interaction behavior with transcranial direct current stimulation—the example of punishing unfairness.
        Cereb Cortex. 2007 Dec 24; (epub ahead of print)
        • Ferrucci R.
        • Marceglia S.
        • Vergari M.
        • et al.
        Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation impairs the practice-dependent proficiency increase in working memory.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2008 Mar 17; (epub ahead of print)
        • Siebner H.R.
        • Lang N.
        • Rizzo V.
        • et al.
        Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex.
        J Neurosci. 2004; 24: 3379-3385
        • Poreisz C.
        • Boros K.
        • Antal A.
        • Paulus W.
        Safety aspects of transcranial direct current stimulation concerning healthy subjects and patients.
        Brain Res Bull. 2007; 72: 208-214
        • Kuo M.F.
        • Paulus W.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        Sex differences of cortical neuroplasticity in humans.
        Neuroreport. 2006; 17: 1703-1707
        • Chaieb L.
        • Antal A.
        • Paulus W.
        Gender-specific modulation of short-term neuroplasticity in the visual cortex induced by transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Vis Neurosci. 2008; 25: 77-81
        • Quartarone A.
        • Lang N.
        • Rizzo V.
        • et al.
        Motor cortex abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with transcranial direct-current stimulation.
        Muscle Nerve. 2007; 35: 620-624
        • Pitcher J.B.
        • Ogston K.M.
        • Miles T.S.
        Age and sex differences in human motor cortex input-output characteristics.
        J Physiol. 2003; 546: 605-613
        • Antal A.
        • Terney D.
        • Poreisz C.
        • Paulus W.
        Towards unravelling task-related modulations of neuroplastic changes induced in the human motor cortex.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2007; 26: 2687-2691
        • Ardolino G.
        • Bossi B.
        • Barbieri S.
        • Priori A.
        Non-synaptic mechanisms underlie the after-effects of cathodal transcutaneous direct current stimulation of the human brain.
        J Physiol. 2005; 568: 653-663
        • Matsunaga K.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Tsuji S.
        • Rothwell J.
        Effect of transcranial DC sensorimotor cortex stimulation on somatosensory evoked potentials in humans.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2004; 115: 456-460
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Seeber A.
        • Frommann K.
        • et al.
        Modulating parameters of excitability during and after transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.
        J Physiol. 2005; 568: 291-303
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Nitsche M.
        • et al.
        Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.
        Exp Brain Res. 2005; 166: 23-30
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Nunes A.
        • Rigonatti S.P.
        • et al.
        Repeated sessions of noninvasive brain DC stimulation is associated with motor function improvement in stroke patients.
        Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007; 25: 123-129
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Lima M.C.
        • et al.
        A sham-controlled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injury.
        Pain. 2006; 122: 197-209
        • Agnew W.F.
        • McCreery D.B.
        Considerations for safety in the use of extracranial stimulation for motor evoked potentials.
        Neurosurgery. 1987; 20: 143-147
        • Durand S.
        • Fromy B.
        • Bouyé P.
        • Saumet J.L.
        • Abraham P.
        Vasodilatation in response to repeated anodal current application in the human skin relies on aspirin-sensitive mechanisms.
        J Physiol. 2002; 540: 261-269
        • Steinhoff B.J.
        • Tumani H.
        • Otto M.
        • et al.
        Cisternal S100 protein and neuron-specific enolase are elevated and site-specific markers in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.
        Epilepsy Res. 1999; 36: 75-82
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Niehaus L.
        • Hoffmann K.T.
        • et al.
        MRI study of human brain exposed to weak direct current stimulation of the frontal cortex.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2004; 115: 2419-2423
        • Lippold O.J.C.
        • Redfearn J.W.T.
        Mental changes resulting from the passage of small direct currents through the human brain.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1964; 110: 768-772
        • Fitzpatrick R.C.
        • Day B.L.
        Probing the human vestibular system with galvanic stimulation.
        J Appl Physiol. 2004; 96: 2301-2316
        • Liebetanz D.
        • Klinker F.
        • Hering D.
        • et al.
        Anticonvulsant effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in the rat cortical ramp model of focal epilepsy.
        Epilepsia. 2006; 47: 1216-1224
        • Baudewig J.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        • Frahm J.
        Regional modulation of BOLD MRI responses to human sensorimotor activation by transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Magn Reson Med. 2001; 45: 196-201
        • Cogiamanian F.
        • Marceglia S.
        • Ardolino G.
        • Barbieri S.
        • Priori A.
        Improved isometric force endurance after transcranial direct current stimulation over the human motor cortical areas.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2007; 26: 242-249
        • Furubayashi T.
        • Terao Y.
        • Arai N.
        • et al.
        Short and long duration transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the human hand motor area.
        Exp Brain Res. 2008; 185: 279-286
        • Jeffery D.T.
        • Norton J.A.
        • Roy F.D.
        • Gorassini M.A.
        Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the excitability of the leg motor cortex.
        Exp Brain Res. 2007; 182: 281-287
        • Kuo M.-F.
        • Grosch J.
        • Fregni F.
        • Paulus W.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        Focusing effect of acetylcholine on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 1442-1447
        • Kuo M.F.
        • Paulus W.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        Boosting focally-induced brain plasticity by dopamine.
        Cereb Cortex. 2008; 18: 648-651
        • Kwon Y.H.
        • Ko M.H.
        • Ahn S.H.
        • et al.
        Primary motor cortex activation by transcranial direct current stimulation in the human brain.
        Neurosci Lett. 2008; 435: 56-59
        • Lang N.
        • Siebner H.R.
        • Ward N.S.
        • et al.
        How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2005; 22: 495-504
        • Lang N.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        • Rothwell J.C.
        • Lemon R.N.
        Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the human motor cortex on corticospinal and transcallosal excitability.
        Exp Brain Res. 2004; 156: 439-443
        • Lang N.
        • Siebner H.R.
        • Ernst D.
        • et al.
        Preconditioning with transcranial direct current stimulation sensitizes the motor cortex to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and controls the direction of after-effects.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2004; 56: 634-639
        • Liebetanz D.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Pharmacology of transcranial direct current stimulation: missing effect of riluzole.
        Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 56: 282-287
        • Liebetanz D.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Tergau F.
        • Paulus W.
        Pharmacological approach to the mechanisms of transcranial DC-stimulation-induced after-effects of human motor cortex excitability.
        Brain. 2002; 125: 2238-2247
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Roth A.
        • Kuo M.F.
        • et al.
        Timing-dependent modulation of associative plasticity by general network excitability in the human motor cortex.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 3807-3812
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Lampe C.
        • Antal A.
        • et al.
        Dopaminergic modulation of long-lasting direct current-induced cortical excitability changes in the human motor cortex.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2006; 23: 1651-1657
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Jaussi W.
        • Liebetanz D.
        • et al.
        Consolidation of human motor cortical neuroplasticity by D-cycloserine.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004; 29: 1573-1578
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Liebetanz D.
        • Schlitterlau A.
        • et al.
        GABAergic modulation of DC stimulation-induced motor cortex excitability shifts in humans.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2004; 19: 2720-2726
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Grundey J.
        • Liebetanz D.
        • et al.
        Catecholaminergic consolidation of motor cortical neuroplasticity in humans.
        Cereb Cortex. 2004; 14: 1240-1245
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Fricke K.
        • Henschke U.
        • et al.
        Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability shifts induced by transcranial direct current stimulation in humans.
        J Physiol. 2003; 553: 293-301
        • Power H.A.
        • Norton J.A.
        • Porter C.L.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex affects cortical drive to human musculature as assessed by intermuscular coherence.
        J Physiol. 2006; 577: 795-803
        • Quartarone A.
        • Morgante F.
        • Bagnato S.
        • et al.
        Long lasting effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor imagery.
        Neuroreport. 2004; 15: 1287-1291
        • Antal A.
        • Brepohl N.
        • Poreisz C.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation over somatosensory cortex decreases experimentally induced acute pain perception.
        Clin J Pain. 2008; 24: 56-63
        • Dieckhöfer A.
        • Waberski T.D.
        • Nitsche M.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation applied over the somatosensory cortex-differential effect on low and high frequency SEPs.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2006; 117: 2221-2227
        • Ragert P.
        • Vandermeeren Y.
        • Camus M.
        • Cohen L.G.
        Improvement of spatial tactile acuity by transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2008; 119: 805-811
        • Rogalewski A.
        • Breitenstein C.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        • Knecht S.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation disrupts tactile perception.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2004; 20: 313-316
        • Terney D.
        • Bergmann I.
        • Poreisz C.
        • et al.
        Pergolide increases the efficacy of cathodal direct current stimulation to reduce the amplitude of laser-evoked potentials in humans.
        J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008 Mar 9; (epub ahead of print)
        • Antal A.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        External modulation of visual perception in humans.
        Neuroreport. 2001; 12: 3553-3555
        • Antal A.
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Manipulation of phosphene thresholds by transcranial direct current stimulation in man.
        Exp Brain Res. 2003; 150: 375-378
        • Antal A.
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Modulation of moving phosphene thresholds by transcranial direct current stimulation of V1 in human.
        Neuropsychologia. 2003; 41: 1802-1807
        • Antal A.
        • Varga E.T.
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Paulus W.
        Oscillatory brain activity and transcranial direct current stimulation in humans.
        Neuroreport. 2004; 15: 1307-1310
        • Antal A.
        • Varga E.T.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • et al.
        Direct current stimulation over MT +/V5 modulates motion aftereffect in humans.
        Neuroreport. 2004; 15: 2491-2494
        • Lang N.
        • Siebner H.R.
        • Chadaide Z.
        • et al.
        Bidirectional modulation of primary visual cortex excitability: a combined tDCS and rTMS study.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48: 5782-5787
        • Antal A.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Kruse W.
        • et al.
        Direct current stimulation over V5 enhances visuomotor coordination by improving motion perception in humans.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2004; 16: 521-527
        • Antal A.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • et al.
        Facilitation of visuo-motor learning by transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor and extrastriate visual areas in humans.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2004; 19: 2888-2892
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Castro L.O.
        • Savagim E.A.
        • et al.
        Enhancement of non-dominant hand motor function by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Neurosci Lett. 2006; 404: 232-236
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Ferrucci R.
        • Rigonatti S.P.
        • et al.
        Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in patients with Parkinson's disease.
        J Neurol Sci. 2006; 249: 31-38
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Bermpohl F.
        • Vergara A.O.
        • et al.
        Go-no-go task performance improvement after anodal transcranial DC stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in major depression.
        J Affect Disord. 2007; 101: 91-98
        • Fecteau S.
        • Knoch D.
        • Fregni F.
        • et al.
        Diminishing risk-taking behavior by modulating activity in the prefrontal cortex: a direct current stimulation study.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 12500-12505
        • Fecteau S.
        • Pascual-Leone A.
        • Zald D.H.
        • et al.
        Activation of prefrontal cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation reduces appetite for risk during ambiguous decision making.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 6212-6218
        • Flöel A.
        • Rösser N.
        • Michka O.
        • Knecht S.
        • Breitenstein C.
        Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2008 Feb 27; (epub ahead of print)
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Rigonatti S.P.
        • Pascual-Leone A.
        Cognitive effects of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with depression.
        Depress Anxiety. 2006; 23: 482-484
        • Kincses T.Z.
        • Antal A.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Bártfai O.
        • Paulus W.
        Facilitation of probabilistic classification learning by transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in the human.
        Neuropsychologia. 2004; 42: 113-117
        • Kuo M.F.
        • Unger M.
        • Liebetanz D.
        • et al.
        Limited impact of homeostatic plasticity on motor learning in humans.
        Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46: 2122-2128
        • Lang N.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Sommer M.
        • Tergau F.
        • Paulus W.
        Modulation of motor consolidation by external DC stimulation.
        Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2003; 56: 277-281
        • Marshall L.
        • Mölle M.
        • Hallschmid M.
        • Born J.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory.
        J Neurosci. 2004; 24: 9985-9992
        • Marshall L.
        • Mölle M.
        • Siebner H.R.
        • Born J.
        Bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation slows reaction time in a working memory task.
        BMC Neurosci. 2005; 6: 23
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Schauenburg A.
        • Lang N.
        • et al.
        Facilitation of implicit motor learning by weak transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex in the human.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2003; 15: 619-626
        • Ohn S.H.
        • Park C.I.
        • Yoo W.K.
        • et al.
        Time-dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the enhancement of working memory.
        Neuroreport. 2008; 19: 43-47
        • Rosenkranz K.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • Tergau F.
        • Paulus W.
        Diminution of training-induced transient motor cortex plasticity by weak transcranial direct current stimulation in the human.
        Neurosci Lett. 2000; 296: 61-63
        • Sparing R.
        • Dafotakis M.
        • Meister I.G.
        • Thirugnanasambandam N.
        • Fink G.R.
        Enhancing language performance with non-invasive brain stimulation—a transcranial direct current stimulation study in healthy humans.
        Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46: 261-268
        • Priori A.
        • Mameli F.
        • Cogiamanian F.
        • et al.
        Lie-specific involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in deception.
        Cereb Cortex. 2008; 18: 451-455
        • Varga E.T.
        • Elif K.
        • Antal A.
        • et al.
        Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex modifies facial gender adaptation.
        Ideggyogy Sz. 2007; 60: 474-479
        • Antal A.
        • Lang N.
        • Boros K.
        • et al.
        Homeostatic metaplasticity of the motor cortex is altered during headache-free intervals in migraine with aura.
        Cereb Cortex. 2008 Mar 27; (epub ahead of print)
        • Chadaide Z.
        • Arlt S.
        • Antal A.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation reveals inhibitory deficiency in migraine.
        Cephalalgia. 2007; 27: 833-839
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Nitsche M.A.
        • et al.
        Treatment of major depression with transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Bipolar Disord. 2006; 8: 203-204
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Rigonatti S.P.
        • Ribeiro R.B.
        • et al.
        A randomized, double-blind clinical trial on the efficacy of cortical direct current stimulation for the treatment of major depression.
        Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008; 11: 249-254
        • Rigonatti S.P.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Myczkowski M.L.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct stimulation and fluoxetine for the treatment of depression.
        Eur Psychiatry. 2008; 23: 74-76
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Mansur C.G.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients.
        Neuroreport. 2005; 16: 1551-1555
        • Hesse S.
        • Werner C.
        • Schonhardt E.M.
        • et al.
        Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robot-assisted arm training in subacute stroke patients: a pilot study.
        Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007; 25: 9-15
        • Hummel F.C.
        • Voller B.
        • Celnik P.
        • et al.
        Effects of brain polarization on reaction times and pinch force in chronic stroke.
        BMC Neurosci. 2006; 7: 73
        • Monti A.
        • Cogiamanian F.
        • Marceglia S.
        • et al.
        Improved naming after transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79: 451-453
        • Fregni F.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Santos M.C.
        • et al.
        Noninvasive cortical stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
        Mov Disord. 2006; 21: 1693-1702
        • Fregni F.
        • Gimenes R.
        • Valle A.C.
        • et al.
        A randomized, sham-controlled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2006; 54: 3988-3998
        • Roizenblatt S.
        • Fregni F.
        • Gimenez R.
        • et al.
        Site-specific effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on sleep and pain in fibromyalgia: a randomized, sham-controlled study.
        Pain Pract. 2007; 7: 297-306
        • Boggio P.S.
        • Sultani N.
        • Fecteau S.
        • et al.
        Prefrontal cortex modulation using transcranial DC stimulation reduces alcohol craving: a double-blind, sham-controlled study.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 92: 55-60
        • Fregni F.
        • Orsati F.
        • Pedrosa W.
        • et al.
        Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates the desire for specific foods.
        Appetite. 2008; 51: 34-41
        • Fregni F.
        • Liguori P.
        • Fecteau S.
        • et al.
        Cortical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex with transcranial direct current stimulation reduces cue-provoked smoking craving: a randomized, sham-controlled study.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69: 32-40
        • Ferrucci R.
        • Mameli F.
        • Guidi I.
        • et al.
        Recognition memory in Alzheimer disease.
        Neurology. 2008 June 4; (epub ahead of print)
        • Fregni F.
        • Marcondes R.
        • Boggio P.S.
        • et al.
        Transient tinnitus suppression induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation.
        Eur J Neurol. 2006; 13: 996-1001
        • Huey E.D.
        • Probasco J.C.
        • Moll J.
        • et al.
        No effect of DC brain polarization on verbal fluency in patients with advanced frontotemporal dementia.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2007; 118: 1417-1418
        • Quartarone A.
        • Rizzo V.
        • Bagnato S.
        • et al.
        Homeostatic-like plasticity of the primary motor hand area is impaired in focal hand dystonia.
        Brain. 2005; 128: 1943-1950