- •ECT is useful for the treatment of concomitant psychiatric disorders.
- •rTMS, iTBS, and tDCS show mixed results in MS symptoms.
- •More studies are needed to explore NIBS in MS.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling neurological disorder presenting a variety of symptoms which are hard to control by actual drug regimens. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been investigated in the past years for the improvement of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders.
Here, we review the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, iTBS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in MS patients.
Articles were searched in common literature databases. Crosslinks were reviewed.
ECT was shown to be efficacious for the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders in 21 case reports. The results of tDCS and TMS for the treatment of depressive symptoms, fatigue, tactile sensory deficit, pain, motor performance, and spasticity were assessed in several studies and showed mixed results.
Overall, data for the treatment of MS with NIBS is sparse regarding TMS and tDCS. Treatment of severe psychiatric disorders with ECT is only reported in single cases. More studies are needed to elucidate the potential role of NIBS in MS treatment.
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Published online: September 26, 2014
Accepted: September 19, 2014
Received in revised form: August 25, 2014
Received: May 21, 2014
Conflict of interest: F.P. has received grants from neuroConn GmbH, Ilmenau, Germany. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.