Proceedings #25. A novel stimulator for Advanced Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES) Techniques.

      Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) can take the form of direct current stimulation (TDCS), alternating current stimulation (TACS), or random noise stimulation (TRNS). Several recent reviews document the safety and efficacy of TES in healthy and in clinical populations [1,2,3]. The location of TDCS, TACS, and TRNS paradigms are largely informed by neuroimaging and the brain lesion literature. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) provide additional information that informs the frequency of TACS, while the principle of reciprocity [5] with EEG can inform the amplitude and location of TES. Advanced TES techniques, vary the amplitude of stimulation at various sites on the scalp in attempts to make TES more focal [4]. The ability to vary frequency, amplitude, and location of TES allows customized stimulation for different tasks. However, variation in brain activity includes not only frequency, amplitude, and location but also latency and duration. Combinations of these variable are unexplored in TES.
      Fig. 1
      Fig. 1Stimulator performance in comparison to values from Ohm’s Law. The red, green, and blue lines show different current specifications. The dotted lines are values calculated from Ohm’s law and the solid lines are the measured voltages. Top Panel; RGN NeuroMod16 delivering TDCS. Bottom Panel; RGN NeuroMod16 delivering TACS. The stimulator reproduces the values expected from Ohm’s Law while delivering both AC and DC stimulation.
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