Research Article| Volume 10, ISSUE 5, P934-943, September 2017

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Neural activity during attentional conflict predicts reduction in tinnitus perception following rTMS


      • Patients enrolled in an rTMS clinical trial for tinnitus underwent fMRI at baseline.
      • Patients underwent the MSIT attentional conflict fMRI task.
      • 1 Hz rTMS intervention significantly reduced tinnitus symptoms (i.e. awareness).
      • Prefrontal and parietal recruitment during MSIT negatively predicted rTMS response.
      • These regions may be biomarkers for improving patient selection.



      Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms.


      Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing. STG has reciprocal connections to regions of the prefrontal cortex that mediate attention. To probe the hypothesized influence of STG stimulation on attention, a subset of patients with tinnitus enrolled in an rTMS clinical trial [n = 12, 9 male, mean (sd) age = 49 (15) years] underwent an attentional conflict task before and after rTMS treatment in a repeated-measures functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study.


      The Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT), a Stroop-based visual attentional conflict fMRI task, was used to map participants' neural processing of attentional conflict prior to rTMS intervention (Baseline) and after three rTMS intervention arms: Sham, 1 Hz, and 10 Hz (four sessions per arm, 1800 pulses per session, delivered @110% of the motor threshold over the posterior superior temporal gyrus).


      All measures of tinnitus severity (awareness, loudness, and annoyance) improved with 1 Hz rTMS intervention; however, the greatest and most robust changes were observed for ratings of tinnitus awareness (mean 16% reduction in severity from Baseline, p < 0.01). The MSIT elicited a similar pattern of neural activation among tinnitus participants at Baseline compared to an independent sample of 43 healthy comparison adults (r = 0.801, p = 0.001). Linear regression with bootstrap resampling showed that greater recruitment of bilateral prefrontal and bilateral parietal regions by MSIT at Baseline corresponded with poorer treatment response. Individual regions' activities explained 37–67% variance in participant treatment response, with left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's MSIT activity at Baseline explaining the greatest reduction in tinnitus awareness following 1 Hz stimulation. Although left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at Baseline also predicted reduction in tinnitus loudness and annoyance (∼50% variance explained), these symptoms were more strongly predicted by right middle occipital cortex (∼70% variance explained) – suggesting that the neural predictors of symptom-specific treatment outcomes may be dissociable.


      These candidate neural reactivity markers of treatment response have potential clinical value in identifying tinnitus sufferers who would or would not therapeutically benefit from rTMS intervention.

      Graphical abstract


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