Abstract| Volume 16, ISSUE 1, P115, January 2023

Past, present (and ?future) of TMS

      Of the many methods now available for non-invasive transcranial stimulation of the human brain, we have the clearest understanding of the mechanism of action of TMS. Yet the application of TMS, like high voltage electrical stimulation of the brain that preceded it, was a chance event that had never been predicted, and which might have had a difficult time these days obtaining funding. Similarly, most of the major TMS methods (intracortical inhibition, cortico-cortical and cerebello-cortical connectivity, “virtual lesioning”, rTMS and even TMS-EEG) were explored in the 10 years following, a rate of progress that would probably halve in the present regulatory environment. So has TMS reached a plateau of development where it is just one of several tools to probe and interact with brain function, or will developments in TMS-EEG, EEG-TMS or novel designs of stimulator open new and unexpected avenues of research?