Abstract| Volume 16, ISSUE 1, P117-118, January 2023

MRI-guided focused ultrasound neuromodulation of deep brain regions and circuits with real time feedback

      Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is an emerging technology and has been regarded as the next generation of neuromodulation tools. tFUS is noninvasive and offers high precision targeting and stimulation of any brain region, including deep brain structures. Combined tFUS with MRI, such as MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) and functional MRI (fMRI), adds capabilities of real-time feedback on the FUS beam location and functional monitoring of FUS in action. In addition, advanced MRI contrasts provide tFUS safety assessment. In this presentation, I will review our progress on developing these methods for human applications and discuss how they are applied to modulate brain function in nonhuman primates. I will show data acquired at 7T and 3T MRI scanners and present results showing that tFUS exerts bidirectional (excitatory and inhibitory) modulation of brain BOLD fMRI signals at both somatosensory cortex and thalamus nucleus and their functional networks in a state-dependent manner. We are currently testing the hypothesis that varying intensities of tFUS selectively activate different types of neurons, resulting in bidirectional modulatory effects.
      Research Category and Technology and Methods
      Translational Research: 13. Other Brain Stimulation Technology
      Keywords: Transcranial focused ultrasound, MRI guidance, BOLD, Somatosensory and pain system