Antidepressant effects of tDCS are associated with prefrontal gray matter volumes at baseline: Evidence from the ELECT-TDCS trialTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising intervention for major depression. However, its clinical effects are heterogeneous. We investigated, in a subsample of the randomized, clinical trial Escitalopram versus Electrical Direct Current Therapy for Depression Study (ELECT-TDCS), whether the volumes of left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were associated with prefrontal tDCS response.
Sham tDCS: A hidden source of variability? Reflections for further blinded, controlled trialsTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique increasingly used to modulate neural activity in the living brain. In order to establish the neurophysiological, cognitive or clinical effects of tDCS, most studies compare the effects of active tDCS to those observed with a sham tDCS intervention. In most cases, sham tDCS consists in delivering an active stimulation for a few seconds to mimic the sensations observed with active tDCS and keep participants blind to the intervention.
Treatment of major depression with a two-step tDCS protocol add-on to SSRI: Results from a naturalistic studyTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been introduced as a potential treatment for major depressive disorder [1,2]. Recent studies suggest that anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has a dosage-dependent effect  and leads to larger clinical improvement when combined with an antidepressant medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  as they enhance and prolong tDCS-induced cortical neuroplasticity [5,6]. Further neuroplasticity changes might be facilitated through metaplastic mechanisms when applying a second tDCS session during the aftereffects of the first stimulation .
Increased left prefrontal brain perfusion after MRI compatible tDCS attenuates momentary ruminative self-referential thoughtsTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique, assumed to influence cognition and emotional processing. Objective: However, it is unclear how tDCS influences spontaneous cognitive processes such as momentary self-referential thoughts on the neuronal level.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy and Neuropsychiatric Samples: Influence of Stimulation ParametersTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique that modulates spontaneous cortical activity using a low-intensity direct current (e.g. 1–2 mA) . First studies evaluated tDCS effects over the motor cortex [2,3]; although more recent research has also focused on its effects over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), particularly to treat psychiatric disorders  and to modulate cognitive performance [5–8]. These cognitive results can be useful to predict treatment outcome.
The Pursuit of DLPFC: Non-neuronavigated Methods to Target the Left Dorsolateral Pre-frontal Cortex With Symmetric Bicephalic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)The dose of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is defined by electrode montage and current, while the resulting brain current flow is more complex and varies across individuals. The left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (lDLPFC) is a common target in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry applications, with varied approaches used to experimentally position electrodes on subjects.