LTD-like plasticity of the human primary motor cortex can be reversed by γ-tACSCortical oscillatory activities play a role in regulating several brain functions in humans. However, whether motor resonant oscillations (i.e. β and γ) modulate long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity of the primary motor cortex (M1) is still unclear.
Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces seizure frequency in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy: A sham controlled studyOne-third of epilepsy patients develop drug resistance, and half of them can benefit from the surgical removal of epileptic focus (EF). Neuromodulation represents the only hope to ameliorate the quality of life of the remaining patients . Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) is a techniques able to non-invasively inhibit cortical excitability , which is abnormally increased in epilepsy . Preliminary results of ctDCS of Epileptic focus (EF) of focal drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) are promising , but several technical issues could be optimized to achieve a clinically relevant effect.
Subdural Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Essential TremorContinuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) using short bursts of low-intensity, high-frequency (50 Hz), pulses repeated every 200 ms is a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol with inhibitory effects on human cortex . Several studies suggested a role for the primary motor cortex (M1) within the central oscillatory network generating Essential Tremor (ET) . Accordingly, recent studies have demonstrated that cTBS over M1 leads to a small and transient reduction of the tremor amplitude in ET patients [3,4].
A Consensus Panel Review of Central Nervous System Effects of the Exposure to Low-Intensity Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic FieldsA large number of studies explored the biological effects of extremely low-frequency (0–300 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) on nervous system both at cellular and at system level in the intact human brain reporting several functional changes. However, the results of different studies are quite variable and the mechanisms of action of ELF-MFs are still poorly defined. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the effects of ELF-MFs on nervous system.