Stimulation-induced reversed plus-minus syndrome: Insights into eyelid physiologyPedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) defines a group of neurons sparsely distributed within the reticular formation of brainstem tegmentum thought to be part of the mesencephalic locomotor region . Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of PPN is an experimental treatment for axial symptoms of Parkinson disease with mixed results .
Systematic review of hardware-related complications of Deep Brain Stimulation: Do new indications pose an increased risk?Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment extended broadly to many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, complications may arise during DBS procedures or following implantation due to implanted hardware. This may result in both minor and major adverse events that may necessitate hardware removal and/or compromise maximal therapeutic benefit for the patient.
Two indications, one target: Concomitant epilepsy and Tourettism treated with Centromedian/parafascicular thalamic stimulationThe Centromedian/parafascicular (CM/Pf) thalamic nuclear complex is a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as for patients affected by resistant generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures [1–3].
Deep Brain Stimulation in Rare Inherited DystoniasDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is now accepted as standard of care for many medication-refractory movement disorders. The use of globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS in isolated dystonias (either generalised or segmental) is supported by strong evidence [1,2] and there are encouraging results in cervical dystonia [3,4], myoclonus-dystonia  and tardive dystonia [6,7]. However, less is known about the impact of DBS on rarer inherited causes of dystonia, in particular heredodegenerative diseases with a phenotype characterized by a progressive generalised dystonia, associated with parkinsonism and other neurological signs [8,9].
Subdural Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Essential TremorContinuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) using short bursts of low-intensity, high-frequency (50 Hz), pulses repeated every 200 ms is a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol with inhibitory effects on human cortex . Several studies suggested a role for the primary motor cortex (M1) within the central oscillatory network generating Essential Tremor (ET) . Accordingly, recent studies have demonstrated that cTBS over M1 leads to a small and transient reduction of the tremor amplitude in ET patients [3,4].