Antidepressant effects of tDCS are associated with prefrontal gray matter volumes at baseline: Evidence from the ELECT-TDCS trialTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising intervention for major depression. However, its clinical effects are heterogeneous. We investigated, in a subsample of the randomized, clinical trial Escitalopram versus Electrical Direct Current Therapy for Depression Study (ELECT-TDCS), whether the volumes of left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were associated with prefrontal tDCS response.
Sham tDCS: A hidden source of variability? Reflections for further blinded, controlled trialsTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique increasingly used to modulate neural activity in the living brain. In order to establish the neurophysiological, cognitive or clinical effects of tDCS, most studies compare the effects of active tDCS to those observed with a sham tDCS intervention. In most cases, sham tDCS consists in delivering an active stimulation for a few seconds to mimic the sensations observed with active tDCS and keep participants blind to the intervention.
Treatment of major depression with a two-step tDCS protocol add-on to SSRI: Results from a naturalistic studyTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been introduced as a potential treatment for major depressive disorder [1,2]. Recent studies suggest that anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has a dosage-dependent effect  and leads to larger clinical improvement when combined with an antidepressant medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  as they enhance and prolong tDCS-induced cortical neuroplasticity [5,6]. Further neuroplasticity changes might be facilitated through metaplastic mechanisms when applying a second tDCS session during the aftereffects of the first stimulation .
Testing assumptions on prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation: Comparison of electrode montages using multimodal fMRITranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking.
Simultaneous rTMS and psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: Clinical outcomes and predictors from a large naturalistic studyRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered an efficacious non-invasive neuromodulation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the clinical outcome of combined rTMS and psychotherapy (rTMS + PT). Through common neurobiological brain mechanisms, rTMS + PT may exert enhanced antidepressant effects compared to the respective monotherapies.
1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trialChronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity.
The Role of Contact Media at the Skin-electrode Interface During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)tDCS can be considered to be safe with little side-effects when using defined parameters (e.g. current strength, duration of application, frequency of stimulation). However, skin lesions have been reported in single cases after tDCS application with tap water soaked sponges on both cathodal [1,2] and anodal sites  in different laboratories. As potential mechanisms, tissue burning by drying-out of sponge electrodes , bacterial superinfection, toxic reaction by tap water constituents (e.g. regionally elevated concentration of specific ions) or impurities , toxic electrochemical reaction products  or pH changes in the skin milieu  have been discussed.