Inferior thalamic peduncle deep brain stimulation for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: A phase 1 pilot trialSeveral different surgical procedures targeting the limbic circuit have been utilized for severe, treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder; however, there has only been limited exploration of the inferior thalamic peduncle (ITP). The aim of this study was to determine the safety and initial efficacy of ITP deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Long-term relief of intractable hiccups with vagal nerve stimulationHiccups are a common transient phenomenon involving spasmodic forceful inspiratory muscle contractions [1,2]. The afferent pathways of this respiratory reflex are the vagal, phrenic and sympathetic (T6-T12) nerves. The phrenic, vagal and intercostal nerves, and direct plexal branches act as efferent pathways to the diaphragm, glottis, interocostal and scalenic muscles, respectively. The reflex center is presumably in the brainstem and/or upper cervical cord. [2,3] Singultus, defined as hiccups lasting >48 hours, is a rare but challenging condition [1,3,4].
Histopathology after microelectrode recording and twelve years of deep brain stimulationDespite the widespread use of deep brain stimulation (DBS), studies on the histological alterations induced by the DBS electrode remain relatively scarce. Typical findings include fibrous sheaths of 5–25 μm surrounding the electrode track, a chronic inflammation with reactive astrocytes, multinucleated giant cells, macrophages, mononuclear leucocytes and T-lymphocytes, fibrillary gliosis and Rosenthal fibers [1,2].