Combination of lithium and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with higher odds of delirium and cognitive problems in a large national sample across the United StatesLithium is a helpful adjunct to patients undergoing ECT. However, only case reports and limited data suggest increase risk of delirium. Thus, this continues to be a controversial issue.
Impact of prior treatment on remission with intermittent theta burst versus high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant depressionMultiple prior treatment failures are associated with reduced rates of remission to subsequent antidepressant treatment, including rTMS. The degree of treatment resistance that is especially predictive of inferior outcome is uncertain. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a newer form of rTMS where less is known regarding clinical predictors of remission. The THREE-D study demonstrated that iTBS is non-inferior to 10 Hz rTMS for the treatment of depression.
The effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on serum tryptophan metabolitesPrior studies suggest that activation of the tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway by proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depression (MD) with immunomodulation as one of the proposed modes of action.
Publication trends in transcranial magnetic stimulation: a 30-year panoramaTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique that has broad diagnostic and therapeutic potential across a range of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Electroconvulsive therapy induced gray matter increase is not necessarily correlated with clinical data in depressed patientsElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and depression have been associated with brain volume changes, especially in the hippocampus and the amygdala.
Inferior thalamic peduncle deep brain stimulation for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: A phase 1 pilot trialSeveral different surgical procedures targeting the limbic circuit have been utilized for severe, treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder; however, there has only been limited exploration of the inferior thalamic peduncle (ITP). The aim of this study was to determine the safety and initial efficacy of ITP deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Durability of antidepressant response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Systematic review and meta-analysisThe therapeutic options for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) encompass a range of neuromodulatory techniques, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). While rTMS is safe and has documented short-term efficacy, durability of antidepressant effects is poorly established.
Treatment of major depression with a two-step tDCS protocol add-on to SSRI: Results from a naturalistic studyTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been introduced as a potential treatment for major depressive disorder [1,2]. Recent studies suggest that anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has a dosage-dependent effect  and leads to larger clinical improvement when combined with an antidepressant medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  as they enhance and prolong tDCS-induced cortical neuroplasticity [5,6]. Further neuroplasticity changes might be facilitated through metaplastic mechanisms when applying a second tDCS session during the aftereffects of the first stimulation .
Randomized controlled trial of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorderMajor depressive disorder (MDD) affects 10% of pregnancies. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a nonmedication option, psychiatric patients who do not tolerate or prefer to avoid antidepressants are good candidates for TMS.
Deep brain stimulation electrode insertion and depression: Patterns of activity and modulation by analgesicsAn initial antidepressant effect when using deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal area of the cingulate cortex (Cg25) to treat resistant depression that could be the result of electrode insertion has been described. We previously showed that electrode insertion into the infralimbic cortex (ILC; the Cg25 rodent correlate) provokes a temporally limited antidepressant-like effect that is counteracted by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as those routinely used for pain relief.
BDNF plasma levels and genotype in depression and the response to electroconvulsive therapyBrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and the antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is reported to increase BDNF levels in blood, though only a small number of studies have been conducted to date.
Deep brain stimulation induces antidepressant-like effects in serotonin transporter knockout miceSome of the antidepressant-like effects of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in rodents have been attributed to the modulation of prefrontal-raphe pathways. This is largely different from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase serotonin (5-HT) levels by inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT). SSRIs have limited efficacy when given to SERT knockout (KO) mice, or patients with mutations in the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR).
International randomized-controlled trial of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in depressionEvidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS.
Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex on the noradrenergic system in ratsDeep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) is a promising therapeutic alternative to treat resistant major depressive disorder. In preclinical studies, DBS of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, the rodent SCC correlate) provokes an antidepressant-like effect, along with changes in noradrenaline levels at the site of stimulation. Hence, DBS appears to activate the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus (LC) system.
Deep brain stimulation to the medial forebrain bundle for depression- long-term outcomes and a novel data analysis strategyDeep brain stimulation (DBS) of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is associated with acute antidepressant effects.
The Clinical TMS Society Consensus Review and Treatment Recommendations for TMS Therapy for Major Depressive DisorderTMS therapy uses a computerized, electromechanical medical device to produce and deliver non-invasive, magnetic stimulation using brief duration, rapidly alternating, or pulsed, magnetic fields to induce electrical currents directed at spatially discrete regions of the cerebral cortex. This method of cortical stimulation by application of brief magnetic pulses to the head is known as transcranial magnetic stimulation or TMS. When pulses of TMS are delivered repetitively, this is called repetitive TMS, or rTMS.
Antidepressant-like Effects of Medial Forebrain Bundle Deep Brain Stimulation in Rats are not Associated With Accumbens Dopamine ReleaseMedial forebrain bundle (MFB) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently being investigated in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Striking features of this therapy are the large number of patients who respond to treatment and the rapid nature of the antidepressant response.
rTMS of the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex for Major Depression: Safety, Tolerability, Effectiveness, and Outcome Predictors for 10 Hz Versus Intermittent Theta-burst StimulationConventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS).
The Efficacy and Safety of Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-resistant Depression: The Results From a Large Multicenter French RCTThe aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and venlafaxine (150–225 mg/day) is effective and safe for treatment-resistant unipolar depression (TRD).
Case Report: Stimulation of the Right Amygdala Induces Transient Changes in Affective BiasSensitive outcome measures are needed to quantify the effects of neuromodulation in mood disorders.
Concurrent Cognitive Control Training Augments the Antidepressant Efficacy of tDCS: A Pilot StudyMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is frequently associated with underactivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) which has led to this brain region being identified as an important target for the development of neurobiological treatments. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) administered to the DLPFC has antidepressant efficacy, however the magnitude of antidepressant outcomes are limited. Concurrent cognitive activity has been shown to enhance tDCS induced stimulation effects.
Association of Cerebral Metabolic Activity Changes with Vagus Nerve Stimulation Antidepressant Response in Treatment-Resistant DepressionVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has antidepressant effects in treatment resistant major depression (TRMD); these effects are poorly understood. This trial examines associations of subacute (3 months) and chronic (12 months) VNS with cerebral metabolism in TRMD.