Impact of prior treatment on remission with intermittent theta burst versus high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant depressionMultiple prior treatment failures are associated with reduced rates of remission to subsequent antidepressant treatment, including rTMS. The degree of treatment resistance that is especially predictive of inferior outcome is uncertain. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a newer form of rTMS where less is known regarding clinical predictors of remission. The THREE-D study demonstrated that iTBS is non-inferior to 10 Hz rTMS for the treatment of depression.
Frequency-specific effects of low-intensity rTMS can persist for up to 2 weeks post-stimulation: A longitudinal rs-fMRI/MRS study in ratsEvidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, alters resting brain activity. Despite anecdotal evidence that rTMS effects wear off, there are no reports of longitudinal studies, even in humans, mapping the therapeutic duration of rTMS effects.
Antidepressant effects of tDCS are associated with prefrontal gray matter volumes at baseline: Evidence from the ELECT-TDCS trialTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising intervention for major depression. However, its clinical effects are heterogeneous. We investigated, in a subsample of the randomized, clinical trial Escitalopram versus Electrical Direct Current Therapy for Depression Study (ELECT-TDCS), whether the volumes of left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were associated with prefrontal tDCS response.
Contextual cues as modifiers of cTBS effects on indulgent eatingPrior studies have found that continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) targeting the left dlPFC results in reliable increases in consumption of calorie-dense food items. However, it is not known to what extent such effects are modified by cues in the immediate eating environment. Tempting environments (i.e., those saturated with appetitive eating cues) may lead to more reliance on cognitive control networks involving the dlPFC, thereby enhancing cTBS effects on indulgent eating.
Effects of single-session versus multi-session non-invasive brain stimulation on craving and consumption in individuals with drug addiction, eating disorders or obesity: A meta-analysisBrain stimulation interventions are increasingly used to reduce craving and consumption in individuals with drug addiction or excessive eating behavior. However, the efficacy of these novel treatments and whether effect sizes are affected by the length of the intervention has not been comprehensively evaluated.
Prefrontal cortex rTMS reverses behavioral impairments and differentially activates c-Fos in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorderPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe mental illness correlated with alterations in fear extinction neurocircuits that involve prefrontal, amygdala and hippocampal structures. Current treatments indirectly restore prefrontal control of fear responses, but still cannot achieve full remission in all patients.
Brain stimulation patterns emulating endogenous thalamocortical input to parvalbumin-expressing interneurons reduce nociception in miceThe bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated.
Bi-hemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for upper limb motor recovery in chronic stroke: A feasibility studyWith the emerging of a crucial role of non-primary and contralesional motor areas in the recovery of upper extremity (UE) after acute stroke [1,2], the ‘‘bimodal-balance recovery model“ has been proposed , with the hypothesis that the contribution of ipsi- and contralesional primary and secondary motor areas might vary according to the structural reserve of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract. This model opens to novel non-invasive brain stimulation approaches for improving the effects of neurorehabilitation, targeting bilateral, wide motor cortical regions rather than focusing on the ipsilateral or contralesional M1.
Neuropeptide Y as a possible homeostatic element for changes in cortical excitability induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulationRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modify cortical excitability. Rat rTMS studies revealed a modulation of inhibitory systems, in particular that of the parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons, when using intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS).
Modulation of motor cortex excitability predicts antidepressant response to prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulationRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a treatment option for patients with medication-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). However, antidepressant response is variable and there are currently no response predictors with sufficient accuracy for clinical use.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy and Neuropsychiatric Samples: Influence of Stimulation ParametersTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique that modulates spontaneous cortical activity using a low-intensity direct current (e.g. 1–2 mA) . First studies evaluated tDCS effects over the motor cortex [2,3]; although more recent research has also focused on its effects over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), particularly to treat psychiatric disorders  and to modulate cognitive performance [5–8]. These cognitive results can be useful to predict treatment outcome.
Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Physical Function and Motor Signs in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisThe progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in functional disruption within the cortico-basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical motor circuit [1,2]. In particular, there is an excessive inhibition of thalamocortical projection to various cortical targets, including the primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor cortex (SMA) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) [2–4]. Abnormal neural activities in these cortical areas were evident in neuroimaging studies that showed hypo-activations of SMA and DLPFC .
A Comparison of Primed Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatments in Chronic StrokePreceding low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with a bout of high-frequency rTMS called priming potentiates the after-effects of the former in healthy adults. The utility of primed rTMS in stroke remains under-explored despite its theoretical benefits in enhancing cortical excitability and motor function.
The Photoparoxysmal Response Reflects Abnormal Early Visuomotor Integration in the Human Motor CortexVisual-paired associative stimulation (V-PAS) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique able to investigate long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) arising through early visuomotor integration.
Reversal of Practice-related Effects on Corticospinal Excitability has no Immediate Effect on Behavioral OutcomeMotor training usually increases the excitability of corticospinal outputs to the trained muscles. However, it is uncertain to what extent the change in excitability is a critical component of behavioral learning or whether it is a non-specific side effect.
rTMS of the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex for Major Depression: Safety, Tolerability, Effectiveness, and Outcome Predictors for 10 Hz Versus Intermittent Theta-burst StimulationConventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS).
Cellular and Molecular Changes to Cortical Neurons Following Low Intensity Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation at Different FrequenciesRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological dysfunction. Therapeutic effects have been reported for low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) although these remain poorly understood.
Inter-subject Variability of LTD-like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex: A Matter of Preceding Motor ActivationContinuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) induces long-term depression (LTD)-like plastic changes in corticospinal excitability, but several studies have reported high inter-subject variability of this effect. Most studies use a tonic voluntary contraction of the target muscle before cTBS to set stimulation intensity; however, it is unclear how this might affect response variability.
The Efficacy and Safety of Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-resistant Depression: The Results From a Large Multicenter French RCTThe aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and venlafaxine (150–225 mg/day) is effective and safe for treatment-resistant unipolar depression (TRD).
Characterizing the Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Forms of Neurostimulation in Chronic Dysphagic Stroke PatientsSwallowing problems following stroke may result in increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.
Long Lasting Effects of Daily Theta Burst rTMS Sessions in the Human Amblyopic CortexIt has been reported that a single session of 1 Hz or 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the visual cortex can temporarily improve contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. More recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the visual cortex has been found to improve contrast sensitivity in observers with normal vision.
Improved receptive and expressive language abilities in nonfluent aphasic stroke patients after application of rTMS: An open protocol case seriesRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been identified as a potentially valuable tool for the rehabilitation of language impairment after left hemisphere (LH) stroke, in populations of persons with chronic aphasia. Applied to a homologue to Broca’s area, rTMS is posited to modulate bilateral language networks, promoting measurable behavioral language change, in accordance with theories of transcallosal disinhibition arising from the damaged LH.