Functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex predicts treatment outcome for rTMS in treatment-resistant depression at 3-month follow-upRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a first-line treatment for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The mechanisms of action of rTMS are not fully understood, and no biomarkers are available to assist in clinical practice to predict response to rTMS. This study aimed to demonstrate that after-rTMS clinical improvement is associated with functional connectivity (FC) changes of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC) and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), and FC of sgACC and rACC might serve as potential predictors for treatment response.
Cortical modulation of nociception by galvanic vestibular stimulation: A potential clinical tool?Vestibular afferents converge with nociceptive ones within the posterior insula, and can therefore modulate nociception. Consistent with this hypothesis, caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has been shown to reduce experimental and clinical pain. Since CVS can induce undesirable effects in a proportion of patients, here we explored an alternative means to activate non-invasively the vestibular pathways using innocuous bi-mastoid galvanic stimulation (GVS), and assessed its effects on experimental pain.
A frontal-vagal network theory for Major Depressive Disorder: Implications for optimizing neuromodulation techniquesMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by high comorbidity with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, a combination of high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) has been frequently reported in depressed patients. The present review proposes a frontal-vagal (brain-heart) network that overlaps with functional nodes of the depression network. Moreover, we summarize neuromodulation studies that have targeted key nodes in this depression network, with subsequent impact on heart rate (HR) or heart-rate-variability (HRV), such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and the vagus nerve (VN).
Cardiovascular differences between sham and active iTBS related to treatment response in MDDHeart rate in MDD is often dysregulated, expressed in overall higher heart rates (HR) and lower heart rate variability (HRV). Interestingly, HR decelerations have been reported after stimulation of the DLPFC using rTMS, suggesting connectivity between the DLPFC and the heart. Recently, a new form of rTMS called theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been developed. One form of TBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS), delivers 600 pulses in just 3 min.
Simulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation in head model with morphologically-realistic cortical neuronsTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables non-invasive modulation of brain activity with both clinical and research applications, but fundamental questions remain about the neural types and elements TMS activates and how stimulation parameters affect the neural response.
Conditions for numerically accurate TMS electric field simulationComputational simulations of the E-field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly used to understand its mechanisms and to inform its administration. However, characterization of the accuracy of the simulation methods and the factors that affect it is lacking.
Cost of focality in TDCS: Interindividual variability in electric fieldsIn transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), electric current is applied via two large electrodes to modulate brain activity. Computational models have shown that large electrodes produce diffuse electric fields (EFs) in the brain, which depends on individual head and brain anatomy. Recently, smaller electrodes as well as novel electrode arrangements, including high-definition TDCS (HD-TDCS) montages, have been introduced to improve the focality of EFs. Here, we investigated whether the EFs of focal montages are more susceptible to interindividual anatomical differences.
Using EMG to deliver lumbar dynamic electrical stimulation to facilitate cortico-spinal excitabilityPotentiation of synaptic activity in spinal networks is reflected in the magnitude of modulation of motor responses evoked by spinal and cortical input. After spinal cord injury, motor evoked responses can be facilitated by pairing cortical and peripheral nerve stimuli.
Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces seizure frequency in patients with refractory focal epilepsy: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, and three-arm parallel multicenter studyTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored in epilepsy with limited samples, varied parameters, and inconclusive results. We aimed to study the efficacy of tDCS for patients with refractory focal epilepsy.
Prefrontal delta oscillations during deep brain stimulation predict treatment success in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorderDeep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is a promising neurotherapeutic approach for severe and refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Successful VC/VS-DBS treatment alters function in frontostriatal pathways important for the etiopathogenesis of OCD [1–3]. Monitoring changes in frontostriatal functioning resulting from active DBS can reveal signatures of DBS engagement with disease-relevant pathways [1,4]. In particular, modulation of the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) seems to be crucial for therapeutic success: symptomatic OCD patients demonstrate hyperconnectivity between the VC/VS and dmPFC, which is normalized following successful VC/VS-DBS [1,5,6].
Transcranial focused ultrasound pulsation suppresses pentylenetetrazol induced epilepsy in vivoEpilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal neuron discharge, and one-third of epilepsy patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). The current management for DRE includes epileptogenic lesion resection, disconnection, and neuromodulation. Neuromodulation is achieved through invasive electrical stimulus including deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or responsive neurostimulation (RNS). As an alternative therapy, transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) can transcranially and non-invasively modulate neuron activity.
Color perception matches selectivity in human early visual cortexWhere and how the color perception formed in the human brain remains one of the most intriguing topics in vision science. Color selective neurons could be found along the visual hierarchy [1,2], but which level contributes directly to color perception and behaviorally correlated processing is still under debate. Lesion  and functional magnetic resonance imaging [4,5] studies in human subjects suggested a group of color-selective areas in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC), which labeled V4/V4α or V8, might be critical for color percepts.
Dopamine depletion effects on cognitive flexibility as modulated by tDCS of the dlPFCRecent evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may interact with the dopaminergic system to affect cognitive flexibility. Objective/hypotheses: We examined whether putative reduction of dopamine levels through the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and excitatory anodal tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are causally related to cognitive flexibility as measured by task switching and reversal learning.
Combination of lithium and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with higher odds of delirium and cognitive problems in a large national sample across the United StatesLithium is a helpful adjunct to patients undergoing ECT. However, only case reports and limited data suggest increase risk of delirium. Thus, this continues to be a controversial issue.
Super refractory status epilepticus in Lafora disease interrupted by vagus nerve stimulation: A case reportRefractory and super refractory status epilepticus (RSE/SRSE) require effective action to avoid death or serious and irreversible consequences on neurological functions. Regrettably, there is a considerable lack of evidence on the optimal treatment strategy . Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), an approved chronic therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy, was initiated acutely in less than 40 reported patients with RSE/SRSE, interrupting 74% of cases . However, several studies failed to provide adequate information on patient clinical characteristics, concomitant and previous treatments, stimulation protocols and data on long-term prognosis .
God locked you in the room, but left a window open: A case report of spinal cord stimulation in locked-in syndromeLocked-in syndrome (LIS), caused by severe damage to the pons, is a serious neurological condition of movement deficiency, characterized by quadriplegia and aphonia. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS), the most common neuromodulation therapy, has recently been shown to restore walking in patients with spinal cord injury . The possibility of SCS treatment in LIS is still unclear. We reported the first application of cervical SCS in a classic LIS patient with encouraging outcomes.
Quantifying acute physiological biomarkers of transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation in the context of psychological stressStress is associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and can lead to lasting alterations in autonomic function and in extreme cases symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a potentially useful tool as a modulator of autonomic nervous system function, however currently available implantable devices are limited by cost and inconvenience.
Adaptive current tDCS up to 4 mAHigher tDCS current may putatively enhance efficacy, with tolerability the perceived limiting factor.
A new device to improve target localization for transcranial magnetic stimulation therapyAccurate identification of cranial midline structures is essential for many targeting techniques that use repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), including the Beam F3 method used for depression treatment.
Cortical inhibition in major depression: Investigating the acute effect of single-session yoga versus walkingWhile the etiology of depressive disorders is multifactorial, spanning diverse polygenic origins and environmental exposures, its impact on an aberrant cortical inhibition-excitation balance is one of the final common pathophysiological processes [1–3]. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – an abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, along with glutamate – an excitatory neurotransmitter, is vital in maintaining an optimal balance required for healthy brain functions. One of the contributing factors to the cortical excitation-inhibition imbalance in depression is GABAergic dysfunction .
Direct current stimulation-induced synaptic plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex: structure follows functionNon-invasive direct current stimulation (DCS) of the brain induces functional plasticity in vitro and facilitates motor learning across species. The effect of DCS on structural synaptic plasticity is currently unknown.
Safety of transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation: A systematic review of the state of knowledge from both human and animal studiesLow-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation (TFUS) holds great promise as a highly focal technique for transcranial stimulation even for deep brain areas. Yet, knowledge about the safety of this novel technique is still limited.
Cerebellar rTMS for motor control in progressive supranuclear palsyStimulatory cerebellar TMS is a promising tool to improve motor control in neurodegenerative disorders. Objective/hypothesis: Our goal was to use 10Hz cerebellar rTMS to augment cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) for improved postural stability and speech in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).
The relationship between individual alpha peak frequency and clinical outcome with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)The individual α frequency (IAF) has been associated with the outcome of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but the association has been inconsistent.
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on body weight and food consumption in obese adults: A randomized controlled studyAlthough some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following the single-session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), there is little research on the effects of multi-session of rTMS on food consumption and body weight in obese subjects.