- Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a first-line treatment for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The mechanisms of action of rTMS are not fully understood, and no biomarkers are available to assist in clinical practice to predict response to rTMS. This study aimed to demonstrate that after-rTMS clinical improvement is associated with functional connectivity (FC) changes of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC) and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), and FC of sgACC and rACC might serve as potential predictors for treatment response.
- Heart rate in MDD is often dysregulated, expressed in overall higher heart rates (HR) and lower heart rate variability (HRV). Interestingly, HR decelerations have been reported after stimulation of the DLPFC using rTMS, suggesting connectivity between the DLPFC and the heart. Recently, a new form of rTMS called theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been developed. One form of TBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS), delivers 600 pulses in just 3 min.
- Multiple prior treatment failures are associated with reduced rates of remission to subsequent antidepressant treatment, including rTMS. The degree of treatment resistance that is especially predictive of inferior outcome is uncertain. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a newer form of rTMS where less is known regarding clinical predictors of remission. The THREE-D study demonstrated that iTBS is non-inferior to 10 Hz rTMS for the treatment of depression.
- Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has been recently studied as an alternative to conventional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS [1,2]. Across both targets, intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) reduces treatment duration while achieving comparable outcomes to conventional 10 Hz stimulation [1,3]. However, iTBS can require more costly devices than conventional high-frequency rTMS, and the consistency of excitatory effect varies across individuals .
- Depression in pregnancy negatively affects maternal-child health. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation treatment for depression, has not been evaluated in pregnancy.
- A recent study by Conde, Tomasevic et al. (2019)  puts a spotlight on the subtleties of experimental design and analysis of studies involving TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), specifically focusing on the challenge of disentangling genuine cortical responses to TMS from those resulting from concomitant sensory activation. This is a relevant topic that the TMS–EEG community has previously identified  and addressed with different strategies [3–6]. Based on the similarity of the evoked EEG responses they obtained in real TMS at different sites and in sham conditions (auditory and somatosensory scalp stimulation), the authors of  inferred that TEPs can be significantly contaminated by the effects of concurrent, non-transcranial stimulation.
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) is becoming an effective therapeutic option for treatment resistant depression (TRD).
- Conventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS).