- Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are increasingly used for therapeutic applications. However, adverse events (AEs) associated with repeated sessions have not been comprehensively evaluated.
- Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS.
- Treatment-emergent mania/hypomania (TEM) is a possible adverse effect of pharmacological and non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments.
- In Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), the electrical stimulus which induces a seizure is given under general anaesthesia. Although the anaesthetic period is brief, the anaesthetic approach may significantly impact on ECT safety , seizure threshold [2,3], cognitive side effects  and particularly, on the quality of the seizures obtained . Most of the literature examining effects of anaesthesia on seizure quality has been focused on differences between anaesthetics types [5,6]. Very limited research has been conducted on the impact of other aspects of the anaesthetic technique, despite the fact that practice continues to be markedly heterogeneous in ECT clinical settings .
- Evidence from recent clinical trials suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may have potential in treating neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the optimal frequency at which tDCS sessions should be administered is unknown.