- Creativity is the use of original ideas to accomplish something innovative. Previous research supports the notion that creativity is facilitated by an activation of the right and/or a deactivation of the left prefrontal cortex. In contrast, recent brain imaging studies suggest that creativity improves with left frontal activation.
- Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) is increasingly used to modulate cerebellar excitability and plasticity in healthy subjects and various patient populations. ctDCS parameters are poorly standardized, and its physiology remains little understood. Our aim was to compare the physiological effects of three different non-target electrode positions (buccinator muscle, supraorbital region, deltoid muscle).
- Arousal and sleep represent basic domains of behavior, and alterations are of high clinical importance.
- Accounts of cognitive processes in judgment and decision-making are frequently based on a dual-process framework, which reflects two qualitatively different types of processing: intuitive (Type 1) and analytical (Type 2) processes.
- For effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), electrical field distribution and coverage of the target areas play a decisive role.
- Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and impulses (obsessions), followed by repetitive thinking or behavioral acting (compulsions) which reduces the obsession-associated anxiety level. Without treatment, severity and daily duration of compulsive symptoms often increase, eventually resulting in marked social impairment and loss of employment. Psychopharmacological treatment with serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants like clomipramine, which seems to be as effective as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) leads to symptom reduction in 40–70%, and full recovery in approximately 25% of patients .
- tDCS can be considered to be safe with little side-effects when using defined parameters (e.g. current strength, duration of application, frequency of stimulation). However, skin lesions have been reported in single cases after tDCS application with tap water soaked sponges on both cathodal [1,2] and anodal sites  in different laboratories. As potential mechanisms, tissue burning by drying-out of sponge electrodes , bacterial superinfection, toxic reaction by tap water constituents (e.g. regionally elevated concentration of specific ions) or impurities , toxic electrochemical reaction products  or pH changes in the skin milieu  have been discussed.
- Non-invasive brain stimulation enables the induction of neuroplasticity in humans, however, with so far restricted duration of the respective cortical excitability modifications. Conventional anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols including one stimulation session induce NMDA receptor-dependent excitability enhancements lasting for about 1 h.