- As advances in neuroimaging further our understanding of the brain's functional connectivity, neuropsychology has moved away from a regional approach of attributing behavior to a specific region towards a network approach, attributing behavior to interconnected regions. A prime example of this is the suggested relevance of frontal asymmetry of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in emotional processing. Yet, while neuroimaging defines relevant networks, it can only establish correlations and not causality.
- With the emerging of a crucial role of non-primary and contralesional motor areas in the recovery of upper extremity (UE) after acute stroke [1,2], the ‘‘bimodal-balance recovery model“ has been proposed , with the hypothesis that the contribution of ipsi- and contralesional primary and secondary motor areas might vary according to the structural reserve of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract. This model opens to novel non-invasive brain stimulation approaches for improving the effects of neurorehabilitation, targeting bilateral, wide motor cortical regions rather than focusing on the ipsilateral or contralesional M1.
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).
- An acute course of dTMS typically involves treatments delivered 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. Should more treatments be given if the patient has not responded? Data are needed to inform decisions about the best next steps for acute non-responders.
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic brain disease characterized by several co-occurring behavioral symptoms, including anhedonia, loss of interest and reduced motivation, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and more . Although environmental factors often trigger MDD, the heritability of this disease is estimated at 40–50% . Despite extensive attempts to improve antidepressant treatment strategies during the past decades, about 30% of all MDD patients are still considered “drug-resistant” and do not respond to pharmacotherapy, while many others refrain from pharmacotherapy due to its considerable side effects [3–6].
- Currently available TMS stimulators have a single channel operating a single coil.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating anxiety disorder induced by traumatic experiences. To date, psychotherapy and drug treatment achieve only partial success, indicating need for further development of treatment strategies. Recent research has found that impaired acquired fear extinction capability serves as an important factor at the pathogenesis of the disorder. Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) hypo-activity has been implicated in this extinction impairment, providing insight as to why some trauma exposed individuals will develop PTSD.
- Apathy is one hallmark of major depression (MDD). It is distinguished by lack of emotion, whereas other aspects of depression involve considerable emotional distress. Investigating both apathy and depression may increase the degree of treatment efficacy for both ailments together and apart.