- Previous work in the language domain has shown that 10 Hz rTMS of the left or right posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in the prefrontal cortex impaired phonological decision-making, arguing for a causal contribution of the bilateral pIFG to phonological processing. However, the neurophysiological correlates of these effects are unclear. The present study addressed the question whether neural activity in the prefrontal cortex could be modulated by 10 Hz tACS and how this would affect phonological decisions.
- The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as both therapeutic and experimental tools has grown enormously over the past decade. However, variability in response to rTMS is one challenge that remains to be solved. Estrogen can impact neural plasticity and may also affect plastic changes following rTMS. The present study investigated whether estrogen levels influence the neurophysiological effects of high-frequency (HF) rTMS in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
- Prior studies have found that continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) targeting the left dlPFC results in reliable increases in consumption of calorie-dense food items. However, it is not known to what extent such effects are modified by cues in the immediate eating environment. Tempting environments (i.e., those saturated with appetitive eating cues) may lead to more reliance on cognitive control networks involving the dlPFC, thereby enhancing cTBS effects on indulgent eating.
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease which often coexists with cognitive deficits. Depression-induced cognitive deficits are known to be associated with aberrant reward processing, neurochemical and structural alterations. Recent studies have shown that chronic electrical stimulation of brain reward areas induces a robust antidepressant effect. However, the effects of repeated electrical self-stimulation of lateral hypothalamus - medial forebrain bundle (LH-MFB) on depression-induced cognitive deficits and associated neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are unknown.
- Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) can quickly modulate brain activity and can be used to treat treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Whole-brain analytical research has revealed that left high-frequency PFC rTMS modulates brain activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-cingulo-temporal circuit. We aimed to investigate whether the prefrontal TBS's antidepressant mechanisms involve these regions.
- We have previously demonstrated, in mice, that antidepressant treatment can prevent relapse of PTSD-like behaviors (avoidance, hyperarousal, and anxiety) through increased activation in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the medial prefrontal cortex.
- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) is a promising therapeutic alternative to treat resistant major depressive disorder. In preclinical studies, DBS of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, the rodent SCC correlate) provokes an antidepressant-like effect, along with changes in noradrenaline levels at the site of stimulation. Hence, DBS appears to activate the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus (LC) system.
- Affect is well known to influence instrumental action . Contemporary literature on multiple behavioral control systems suggests that such affective biasing of instrumental action reflect interactions between a Pavlovian or ‘affective’ system and an instrumental system [2–7]. According to this literature, appetitive and aversive values can transfer to and interact with an instrumental system, thus biasing our instrumental behavior. Although affective biasing of instrumental action are usually adaptive, they may also corrupt behavior, as illustrated by behavioral anomalies in psychiatric disorders [8,9].
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic brain disease characterized by several co-occurring behavioral symptoms, including anhedonia, loss of interest and reduced motivation, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and more . Although environmental factors often trigger MDD, the heritability of this disease is estimated at 40–50% . Despite extensive attempts to improve antidepressant treatment strategies during the past decades, about 30% of all MDD patients are still considered “drug-resistant” and do not respond to pharmacotherapy, while many others refrain from pharmacotherapy due to its considerable side effects [3–6].